EEG Laboratory

EEG Laboratory-meltem-int

Electroencephalography (EEG) is an important examination used to examine patients with epilepsy and patients with suspicious seizure disorders. An EEG device is used to measure the electrical activity of the brain. The purpose of EEG in epilepsy is to support the diagnosis, classify it, investigate focal brain lesions and monitor epilepsy patients.

What is electroencephalography?
EEG is the printing of the electrical activity produced by the nerve cells in the brain, both during wakefulness and sleep, as brain waves on paper.

In Which Situations Is EEG Performed?
The normal electrical activity of the brain is disrupted in many conditions, especially epilepsy. By evaluating the brain waves that make up the EEG, information is obtained about the location and form of this disorder. Examination methods developed later than EEG, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), do not provide information about the electrical activity of the brain. EEG is the examination method that will help decide on treatment, especially in diagnosing epilepsy and determining its types.

EEG disorder occurs in up to 30% of the population. These data show the importance of clinical findings and seizure history in the relationship between epilepsy and EEG discharge. There is a slight possibility of seizures in the future in these people.

Changes are seen in the EEG in brain infections such as encephalitis. In patients with fever and impaired consciousness, EEG is especially informative on this issue. Unique features can also be seen on EEG in herpes encephalitis. Some changes are also seen in EEG in patients with dementia.

How to Take an EEG?
The electrical activity of the brain is transmitted to the EEG device through small metal electrodes placed on the patient’s scalp, and the data is recorded on the computer for an average of 20 minutes.
There is no electricity applied to the patient during the extraction and the patient does not feel any pain.
In order to obtain a quality recording without interference, the patient should keep his eyes closed, his jaw and neck muscles relaxed, and remain as still as possible during the recording, unless otherwise requested.
The patient is asked to breathe deeply during 3 minutes of the shooting, and to look at the light source intermittently during the 10 minutes of the shooting.
Why is EEG taken during sleep?
Sleep helps reveal abnormal electrical activity in the brain. For the diagnosis of epilepsy, in cases where EEG performed for 20 minutes while awake does not provide sufficient information, EEG is performed during sleep for 3-4 hours during the day. As the shooting time increases, the possibility of encountering abnormal brain waves increases.
It is beneficial for the patient to stay sleepless the night before this type of imaging, as it will make it easier for him to sleep during the day and will increase the possibility of abnormal brain waves.
Coming to the Shoot
It is useful to wash your hair on the morning of the shooting day to ensure that the EEG examination is free of interference.
If there are medications that are used regularly, they will continue to be used on the day of the shooting. It would be appropriate to inform the physician who will evaluate the EEG about this.

EEG recording in children by putting them to sleep
EEG recording in children by putting them to sleep
First of all, it is useful to define EEG. The imaging we call EEG is a type of test performed to evaluate brain electrical waves. This test records from many parts of the head with cables called electrodes. This can be compared to heart electrocardiography, or ECG. However, EEG records currents at much lower voltages. This is a meticulous work that requires more technical care. Additionally, longer recording is possible. Hospitals that perform pediatric EEGs perform this procedure successfully. The presence of an expert team is essential for this test. For this reason, the experience of the specialist physician and his staff and the adequacy of the health center should be investigated before the test.

For Which Procedures Is EEG Used?
In evaluating the age-appropriate maturation of the human brain,
In some psychiatric evaluations and drug preferences,
For the detection of false electrical fluctuations in the diagnosis and follow-up of epilepsy, that is, epilepsy,
It is frequently used to monitor metabolic disorders and brain inflammations such as coma and encephalitis.
What is EEG Application for Epilepsy?
In many types of epilepsy, findings become evident during sleep or drowsy periods. For this reason, standard EEG is recorded during sleep and wakefulness periods.

What is Children’s EEG? What are its differences from normal EEG?
If we look at the details of the EEG test in children, the EEG test in children consists of two stages. However, it requires more care and detail than tests performed on adults. Often the performance of technical testing is problematic due to the lack of adaptation in the child. The evaluation process of the test also requires the recognition of childhood maturation and artifacts. In other words, EEG in children requires both an EEG technician who has worked with children and a child neurologist to work together in this process. One of the classic problems is that EEG testing is performed only during sleep with excessive filtering. However, attributing some findings to epilepsy is a problem that requires frequent correction.

Things to Know About Post-Seizure EEG Timing
EEG findings in the hours or even days following the seizure may be suppressed by the seizure or the medications given. For this reason, many physicians recommend waiting for a while and then taking an EEG. However, early findings may be the only detectable findings in some patients. In other words, it is useful to see EEG in both early and late periods as a standard. However, it can be said that this is not a good idea due to practicality problems and financial burden in implementation. For this reason, it is appropriate to determine the EEG timing specifically for the patient according to the patient’s condition and the characteristics of the seizure.

Does EEG Cause Any Harm to the Patient?
When EEG is performed, the only thing recorded is brain electrical waves. In other words, there is no such thing as electrocution to the body. In some young or disturbed children who have problems with adaptation, recording and electrode attachment may cause crying. From the outside, the psychological effect of this may be unsettling, but the experience of the technician and the relaxed but determined attitude of the family will bring the situation under control.

EEG Shooting Process
What Should Be Considered Before Shooting?
Before the EEG recording, the child is expected to come to the shooting feeling sleepy. This will both be healthy for sleep recording and reveal the findings more clearly. Depending on the child’s age, a few hours of sleep deprivation is usually sufficient. It has been observed that sleep deprivation rarely triggers seizures in some patients.

The child’s hair must be clean. That is, there should not be any substance residue. EEG voltages are very low. Therefore, factors such as jelly or dirt will affect the recording quality. The child does not need to be starved before registration. Coming in with a fresh meal or a very full stomach may also affect the registration, so these issues should be taken into consideration.

The areas where the electrodes will be placed were determined by measuring according to the internationally determined 10-20 system. Hospitals performing pediatric EEG must comply with this procedure. Afterwards, approximately 20 electrodes are glued. During the recording, an attempt is made to ensure that the patient is comfortable and to observe his sleep or wakefulness periods, depending on the situation. Additional movement methods such as intermittent light stimulation and rapid breathing are also used.

Approximately 1-2 hours are required to prepare a normal sleep and wakefulness EEG. Since small children have adaptation problems, the electrodes are glued with a material called collodion. This process definitely does not hurt. However, crying may occur in children as it may cause restlessness. However, if the child is compliant, the electrode bonding process is carried out with a cream that also provides conductivity. This procedure is the method used in adults.