What is the Function of Thyroid Hormones?
The hormones T4 and T3 regulate the metabolism of our body and also control the speed of metabolism. If too many hormones are secreted, the metabolism accelerates and hyperthyroidism develops. In the case of hyperthyroidism, the heart rate increases and palpitations occur, while bowel movement increases and diarrhea may occur. If the thyroid hormone is secreted too little, this condition is called hypothyroidism. Hypo means less, Hyper meansmore. When hypothyroidism occurs, metabolism slows down, heart rate decreases, and bowel movements decrease, resulting in constipation.

How To Tell If the Thyroid Gland Is Working Well?
Information about how the thyroid gland works is obtained by measuring the hormones T3, T4 and TSH in the patient’s blood.

What are the Diseases of the Thyroid Gland?
Goiter : The growth of the thyroid gland is called a goiter.
Nodule : A nodule is the formation of abnormal tissue inside the thyroid gland.
Thyroiditis : It is called inflammation of the thyroid gland. There is pain in the gland.
Hyperthyroidism : It is a condition of excessive secretion of T4 and T3 hormones from the gland.
Hypothyroidism : It is a condition of low secretion of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3).
Who Is at Risk of Developing Thyroid Disease?
The risk of developing thyroid disease is higher in the following people:
In those who live in an iodine-deficient area or do not receive enough iodine
In those with thyroid disease in the family
In those with diabetes mellitus (diabetes), rheumatoid arthritis and persinious anemia
Pregnant women and those who are new mothers
in women over the age of 60
for men over the age of 70
In those who have undergone head and longitudinal radiation therapy (radiation therapy) due to cancer
Those who use certain medications (such as lithium, amiodarone and interferon).
Thyroid Nodules (Nodular Goiter)
Thyroid nodules are abnormal tissues that form inside the thyroid gland and may be the size of a chickpea or walnut, which do not resemble the normal tissue of the gland.The most important issue of concern for nodules is 5%?it is that she has thyroid cancer in her.50% of nodules?si is a single nodule, 50%?si is found as multiple nodules (multiple nodules). The cancer rate is the same whether it is a single nodule or multiple nodules (5%).Nodules can be detected during manual examination, as well as detected by ultrasound of the thyroid gland.

Complaints and symptoms :
Most patients with nodular goiter do not have any complaints. There may be swelling in the neck. Sometimes pain may occur if there is bleeding into the nodule. If the nodule grows too large, it may cause shortness of breath and eating problems by pressing.

“Troid Nodule Surgery” is performed successfully in Meltem Hospital. The pathology result of a fine needle aspiration biopsy performed from a nodule is of great importance for how the treatment will be performed. If there is a suspicion of cancer or cancer as a result of biopsy pathology, the patient is given surgery. Levothyroxine therapy (Tefor or Levothyrone) can be performed in benign nodules that are not cancerous, as well as only follow-up can be performed without medication. Is the nodule 3 cm in diameter? if it is larger than den, if it is getting bigger, if there is rapid growth and if there are lymph nodes in the neck, it is appropriate to have surgical treatment (surgery) because the risk of cancer increases. If there is more than one nodule in a gland that we call a multinodular goiter, a biopsy is performed first. The treatment to be chosen in patients with multinodular goiter is surgical treatment.

Although drug therapy can also be performed, the response to treatment is minimal.If the hormones are normal in hot nodules, only follow-up can be performed. If the hormones are high in hot nodules (if there is hyperthyroidism), the patient’s hormones are first brought to normal levels with medication, and then radioactive iodine therapy or surgery is performed.Patients with nodular goiter should not use iodized salt and iodine-containing cough syrups. In addition, it should be remembered that the drugs made from the arm are iodinated while X-ray films are being taken, and information should be given to the doctor taking the X-ray for this. Patients with nodular goiter should eat salt with its own salt, non-iodized salt produced by Crystal Salt or Salina companies available on the market.