The Ear Consists of Three Parts:

The outer ear
Middle ear
The inner ear
The outer ear forms the auricle and ear canal. Deep in the ear canal is the eardrum that separates the outer ear and the middle ear. The eardrum is a thin structure that vibrates when sound waves come over it. The middle ear is a cavity located behind the eardrum and contains air. Air is transported from the nasal region behind the nose to the middle ear through a small channel called the Eustachian tube. The task of the Eustachian tube is to equalize the air pressure in the middle ear cavity with the atmospheric pressure in the external environment. The vibrations created by sound waves in the eardrum are transmitted from the small bones in the middle ear cavity (anvil, stirrup, hammer) to the inner ear, and the nerves that transmit sound to the brain are stimulated.

Perforated Eardrum
The cause of eardrum perforations is usually trauma or infections. A hole may form in the eardrum for reasons such as slapping the ear, pressure changes called barotrauma, head bone fractures, sudden explosions, mixing the ear with a buckle, cotton swab or toothpick; liquids such as acid entering the ear. Middle ear infections can lead to pain, hearing loss, and spontaneous perforation of the membrane. In this case, there will be an inflamed or bloody discharge from the ear. This condition is an inflammation of the middle ear that is accompanied by a hole in the eardrum. In medical terminology, this condition is called “Perforated Otitis Media”. In such cases, there is a hole in the membrane (tympanic membrane) separating the outer ear canal and the middle ear. It is often manifested by severe hearing, ringing, buzzing , dizziness , facial nerve paralysis and sometimes ear discharge combined with severe hearing, usually there is no pain. Rarely, a permanent small hole may form in the ear after a ventilation tube previously inserted into the eardrum.

In fact, punctures in the eardrum are quickly repaired by the body. But the eardrum’s only task is not related to hearing, but there is also a barrier task that protects the ear from the external environment, prevents microbes, water and dust from entering the middle ear. Due to the water entering through the perforated eardrum, it is extremely easy for microbes to multiply in the middle ear. In the eardrum holes that are not well treated and well protected by cycling, the disease may be accompanied by inflammation of the middle ear and related chronic changes, hearing loss, dizziness.

The ear is a region that has a close neighborhood with very important organs. The facial nerve passes through the middle ear, it has a very close neighbor with the brain, and our balance organ is located in the inner ear. For this reason, even if the eardrum holes do not cause very severe burning, if they are not protected and treated properly, they can cause not only hearing loss, but also important diseases such as dizziness, facial paralysis, meningitis, brain abscess.

If a person with a hole in the eardrum does not care about it and does not protect his ear and lives with ear discharge for years, the treatment that will be applied can now turn into surgery just to dry out the ear discharge instead of improving the hearing of the ear. For this reason, in patients who cannot achieve self-repair of the ear and have a long-term eardrum hole, it is necessary to perform eardrum repair with surgery, sometimes additional surgical procedures to improve hearing Oct.

In particular, in children, even a simple cold can lead to inflammation of the middle ear, since the Eustachian tube between the nose and the ear is shorter than in adults. Decapitation of the Eustachian tube between the nose and the ear. Children with nasal flesh problems also experience frequent recurrent middle ear infections, since the Eustachian tube can easily become dysfunctional. In middle ear infections that are not treated well, severe pain can lead to a puncture of the eardrum with a discharge from the ear and relief. If treatment is not provided at this stage, the eardrum rupture that occurs becomes permanent and turns into a disease that we call chronic otitis throughout life and that can lead to the serious consequences I mentioned above.

Like many organs that we use without knowing their value when we are healthy, the ear can turn into a trail that leads to constant proximity as a result of a perforation of the membrane and constantly reminds us how difficult it is to be unable to hear. Many ear patients who are ashamed of having to repeat what is constantly said in social life often either start lip-reading or pretend to understand sentences that they cannot understand in order not to be embarrassed.

Eardrum perforation is a disease that can be treated with surgery and can be protected from serious consequences when a person takes preventive measures by realizing his condition. If the puncture in the eardrum does not repair itself within six weeks, it is necessary to contact an ENT specialist without further delay to repair the membrane. Although some take months to heal, most eardrum holes close on their own a few weeks after they are punctured. During their recovery, the ear should be protected from water and impact.

Hearing Loss Caused by a Perforated Eardrum
Usually, the larger the hole, the greater the hearing loss. The location of the hole in the eardrum also affects hearing. If a skull fracture has also caused damage to the bones that transmit hearing to the inner ear in connection with each other in the middle ear, hearing loss can be quite severe.

If the eardrum is punctured as a result of a sudden blow or explosion, hearing loss may be excessive, and tinnitus may also be added to complaints. In this case, hearing returns over time, and tinnitus decreases within a few days. The presence of constant inflammation due to the eardrum hole can lead to advanced hearing loss.

Rupture of the Eardrum As A Result Of A Blow to The Ear
Eardrum ruptures (membrane perforations) due to trauma (slapping) can largely heal on their own if no infection is added. However, an ENT specialist makes simple attempts to ensure that this recovery can be smooth and quick. Applying for treatment in the first 24-48 hours after the trauma increases the likelihood of treatment The ear should be protected from water and trauma during the healing cycle. Holes that do not close on their own require surgery. If the hole is small, your doctor needs to check whether it closes on its own over time.

Recommendations For Protecting the Eardrum
It is necessary to go to a doctor for sudden or slowly developing hearing loss. Especially those who complain of nasal congestion, sinusitis, advanced discharge from the nose, facial pain, those with blocked Eustachian tube, plane trips and diving under water should stay away. The external ear canal should not be cleaned with foreign objects, ear sticks. Those who shoot guns, soldiers or mine workers working with explosives should use headphones.

Ear Care: If your eardrum has a hole, you should not leak water into your ear. When taking a bath or washing your head, you should put a piece of cotton plastered with vaseline in your ear. When swimming, it is useful to put a tight swimming cap on the cotton. In addition, earplugs of various sizes are also sold in grocery stores.

You should avoid blowing your nose vigorously. This event causes the microbes in your nose and nose to reach the middle ear through the “Eustachian tube” located between the nasal Decussation and the middle ear. The runny nose should be pulled inward, spit out. If it is very necessary to blow your nose, it is recommended to do this without closing the other nostril.

As long as there is an ear discharge, the ear should be cleaned as much as possible without inserting too much into it. If there is a runny ear or it has started, medication should be used. Cotton can be placed in the ear canal to detect the presence of discharge, but this should not constantly block the way to the discharge.

Is there a difference in the severity of Decapitation between being in childhood or adulthood? No. The eardrum can repair itself very well at any age.

Drug Treatment
Medication treatment will mostly stop the ear discharge. Treatment requires intermittent cleaning of the ear, the use of drops or powders. Oral antibiotics should be used in certain people

Treatment and Prevention
Before attempting to treat the hole, a hearing test should be performed. Hearing loss is directly proportional to the size of the hole. The location of the hole in the eardrum also affects the degree of hearing loss. Hearing loss will also be serious if the ossicles that provide the transmission of sound in the middle ear have separated from each other as a result of a serious trauma, or if the inner ear structures have been damaged. If the hole in the eardrum was caused as a result of sudden trauma or explosion, deep hearing loss and severe ringing may occur. In this case, hearing usually partially returns and the ringing decreases within a few days. A hearing test should be performed before any intervention. Closing the hole in the membrane has various benefits, such as preventing water from escaping into the middle ear during bathing and swimming (Otherwise ear infections may occur), improving healing and reducing ringing. It also prevents the development of cholesteatoma (Skin cyst) in the middle ear. (Cholesteatoma can lead to chronic infection and destruction of ear structures)