How is the Sound Formed?
The airflow from the lungs is used for the formation of sound. The lungs push the breathing air into the larynx, and the air passing through the vocal cords in the larynx creates sound. Dec. This sound takes the form of speech through the oral cavity, tongue, teeth, nasal cavity and sinuses.

Where Are The Vocal Cords?
After the oral cavity, two paths are formed in front and behind. The way in the back is related to the digestive system and goes to the stomach through the esophagus. The path in front is connected to the respiratory tract (bronchi and lungs) through the larynx (larynx). The vocal cords are located in the larynx. The vocal cords, of which there are two on the right and left, are mobile organs and approach and separate from each other. While opening sideways during breathing, they approach each other and vibrate during speech. The location of the vocal cords corresponds to the lower part of the protrusion known as the Adam’s apple at the neck by about 2 cm.

What Does Hoarseness Mean?
When we say hoarseness, it is usually thought that there is a decrease or no sound at all, but all kinds of different than normal sound formation are called hoarseness. Bifurcations, vibrations, muffled sound and all other sound changes in the voice are called hoarseness.

Why Hoarseness Occurs: There are many reasons that cause hoarseness. Among them, there may be very simple and spontaneous Decurable causes, as well as serious and treatable diseases that may be major surgeries.

Among the diseases that can cause hoarseness are the following Decencies::
-Laryngitis (Inflammation of the larynx)
-Benign masses such as nodules,cysts or polyps on the vocal cords
-Lung diseases
-Paralysis of the nerves that provide vocal cord movement
-Nasal discharge due to allergies or inflammations
-The presence of acid leakage from the stomach upwards (reflux)
-Tumors of the larynx and surrounding tissues
-Blows from around the vocal cords
-Psychological reasons
-Diseases that involve the vocal cord along with other parts of the body, such as diabetes or diseases of the nervous system

When Should I Go to the Doctor: In fact, it is necessary to go to the doctor as soon as hoarseness occurs. However, this is unlikely to be possible in our country. For this reason, it is necessary to go to the doctor for hoarseness that usually lasts more than 1-2 weeks. If there are complaints such as difficulty breathing with hoarseness, blood coming from the mouth, difficulty swallowing, or a mass (swelling) in the neck, it is necessary to hurry more to consult an ENT specialist. When there is hoarseness, one should not immediately worry about a serious illness, nor should one be too dismissive and neglect the examination.

How the Examination is Performed: In outpatient conditions, the vocal cord examination is performed either with a mirror called a larynx mirror or with a video method called an endoscope. In both cases, your doctor will pull it out by holding your tongue and insert the mirror or endoscope into the mouth. This can sometimes lead to the formation of a gag reflex in the patient and nausea. Sometimes it may be necessary to numb the patient’s throat. After seeing the vocal cords, your doctor will ask you to say ‘i’ to check their movements. In this way, any movement restriction can be examined. Sometimes the vocal cords cannot be examined adequately with these methods. In this case, a tubular instrument called direct laryngoscopy should be used, which is inserted through the patient’s mouth and provides a laryngeal examination while the patient is in a supine position. During this procedure, a more detailed examination can be performed using a microscope. Local or general anesthesia is required when performing direct laryngoscopy.

What Kind of Tests Should be Performed: The most important part of understanding the cause of hoarseness is the examination of the patient. during the examination, an idea of the cause is usually obtained. It is usually selected according to this idea in the examinations to be performed. Since the diagnosis of diseases such as laryngitis (inflammation of the vocal cord), nodules, polyps, cysts is made by examination, it is generally not necessary to conduct an examination.

Among the examinations that can be performed for hoarseness are the following Decrees:
-Chest X-ray
-Sinusitis films
-Allergy tests
-Research of diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis
-Examination of the larynx area by computed tomography or magnetic resonance
-If a tumor is detected, a biopsy is taken and examined in pathology
-Films about the brain in paralysis of the vocal cord nerve
Your doctor will decide which of these examinations will be performed according to what he sees during the examination.

How to Treat: The treatment of hoarseness varies depending on the disease that causes hoarseness. Because hoarseness itself is not a disease, but a symptom of other diseases. For this reason, information about treatment will be described in each disease’s own section. To give brief information, vocal cord inflammation is generally treated with medication. In the past, more surgeries were performed for diseases such as nodules and polyps, but in recent years, more voice training is being performed with tedsavi. Correct use of the patient’s voice usually allows nodules and polyps to shrink or disappear. For this purpose, your doctor will have recommendations for you. Vocal cord paralysis is sometimes due to diseases such as tumors, and sometimes to goiter operations. If it is connected to the tumor, the corresponding organ needs to be treated. During goiter surgery, sometimes the vocal cord nerve may be cut. In this case, some nerve and November surgeries can be performed. In cases with acid leakage from the stomach (reflux disease), there are some precautions that the patient will take both drug treatment and. These measures are described in a subparagraph. If the hoarseness is due to a malignant tumor of the larynx, the patient is treated with surgery. In this surgery, part or all of the larynx is removed according to the prevalence of the tumor. Voice function is definitely affected by this surgery. Some auxiliary methods may be required for speech.

What should I Pay Attention to: There are some situations that the patient will pay attention to so that there is no hoarseness or, if there is, it heals easily. Among them may be mentioned the following Decrees::
-Non-use of cigarettes and alcohol (the role of smoking is much more)
-Avoiding talking for too long
-Using the diaphragm, speaking without exhausting the laryngeal November muscles too much
-Drinking plenty of water
-Avoiding doing the throat clearing movement
-For patients with acid leakage from the stomach, do not drink tea, coffee, cola, alcohol in the evening, do not eat enough food to fill the stomach, do not eat and go to bed immediately, sleep on a high pillow
-The humidity and temperature of the environment you are in are appropriate

When Surgery is Required: Some of the diseases that cause hoarseness are treated with surgery. Nodules, polyps and cysts can be removed surgically if they have not been corrected by sound therapy or if their size is large. Tumors are almost always treated with surgery. In paralysis of the vocal cord nerves, sometimes exercises are performed to make speech better. Information about these surgeries is described in each disease’s own section.