Anesthesia is preventing the person from feeling pain with the help of various medications for a painless and safe surgery. Anesthesia both prevents the person from feeling pain during the surgery and creates a suitable environment for the surgeon to work. Nowadays, with modern anesthesia techniques, patients can have surgery comfortably with very little risk. Anesthesia is given by the anesthesiologist doctor.

What is pre-anesthesia evaluation?
During the previous visit, the physical and psychological condition of the patient preparing for surgery is evaluated; The patient should be informed about the anesthesia method to be applied (General or Regional) and his fear and anxiety should be eliminated. In this evaluation;

The physical condition and psychological structure of the patient are determined. Concomitant diseases, if any, are detected through laboratory examinations. (A misconception is that the test determines whether there is an allergy to anesthetic substances before anesthesia. The issue of allergy should be communicated and the evaluation of the situation should be left to the anesthesiologist.)

The medications and other treatments used are determined. Smoking, alcohol and other habits are noted. Before anesthesia is administered, the anesthesiologist meets the patient and evaluates the patient’s health condition.

Information about the patient’s general health status and diseases, if any.
Allergy, drug allergies
drug use
Information about previous surgeries, the surgical method and anesthesia technique used during these surgeries.
The current health condition is very important for the safety of the surgery and the patient. If necessary, existing diseases before the surgery are reviewed, whether they pose an obstacle to the surgery is discussed, and treatments are rearranged. If the person has a known allergy, this should be stated to the anesthesiologist. In particular, knowing drug allergies prevents the use of these drugs during surgery and the problems that may develop due to a possible allergy.

Some medications used may cause undesirable situations by causing bleeding or interacting with drugs used in anesthesia. For this reason, it is important to be aware of such medications being used and, if necessary, to discontinue them under the supervision of an anesthesiologist before the surgery. Previous surgery and anesthesia experience should also be known and one should be prepared for the risk that previous difficulties may recur.

Anesthesia equipment
In the section reserved for anesthesia in the operating room (usually operating rooms), there are the following tools and equipment related to anesthesia;

  1. Anesthesia device: Medicines that stop the patient’s consciousness and breathing are used to give anesthesia. After the patient loses consciousness and breathing, the patient is artificially ventilated using an anesthesia machine to maintain vital functions. With the help of this machine, the patient is given oxygen and soporific gases that maintain anesthesia. A tube is placed from the patient’s mouth into the trachea to ensure breathing. This event is called intubation.
  2. Medications: Various medications are given to the patient to provide anesthesia. These drugs enter the circulation through a needle inserted into one of the patient’s veins. With these medications, the patient loses consciousness, the sensation of pain is eliminated, and the abdominal muscles are relaxed so that the surgery can be performed comfortably.

What is done during anesthesia?

When the patient is taken to the operating room, electrodes are placed on the chest skin. Thus, heartbeat and rhythm are checked on the screen. Blood pressure is monitored through a cuff placed on the arm. The amount of oxygen in the blood can be monitored using a sensitive instrument placed on the nail bed. Thanks to some advanced devices, the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood can also be measured.

During the surgery, the anesthesiologist closely monitors the heartbeat, rhythm, blood pressure and amount of oxygen in the blood, and any changes in these parameters can be immediately intervened with medications. Thus, a safe anesthesia is ensured.

What are the anesthesia methods?
general anesthesia
spinal anesthesia
epidural anesthesia
Nerve block anesthesia
It consists of local anesthesia.

The anesthesia method to be chosen is determined by the patient’s general health condition, the presence of accompanying diseases, and the surgery location. For example, if a knee surgery is to be performed on a patient who is inconvenient to receive general anesthesia and has lung disease, this can be done with spinal anesthesia provided by numbness from the waist down.